Old Town Club, North Carolina, United States of America

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Maxwell’s use of the land and his uncluttered architectural style once again set the standard against which clubs in the Southeast and beyond are judged.

Some golf course architects start strong but fizzle. After pouring bright, innovative ideas into their initial work and creating a niche for themselves, they often become handcuffed by new clients who ask them to repeat. Uncommon is the architect whose best work is evenly spread throughout his career. Perry Maxwell from Ardmore, Oklahoma is that rare exception.

Opened in 1939, Maxwell’s The Old Town Club borrowed the best design tenets he had seen over the past three decades. That’s saying something as Maxwell was the man who built such national treasures as Prairie Dunes and Southern Hills, who worked on the best of the best including National Golf Links of America, Pine Valley and Merion, and whom Alister MacKenzie sought for his partner at projects like Crystal Downs.

Indeed, Maxwell got the Old Town project after Clifford Roberts recommended him to Charles Babcock, husband of Mary Reynolds Babcock. The Reynolds family was keen to form a new club as their local Ross course had become crowded. Maxwell drove from Augusta National to meet with Babcock and ultimately went on to build not only Old Town but also the Reynolds Park Golf Course for the city of Winston-Salem. These two courses completed near the onset of World War II essentially brought to a close the Golden Age of golf course design.

In a rare extension of luxury to an architect, Maxwell was offered his pick of 1,000 acres (!) on the Reynolds estate to place the course. One can only imagine how thrilled he was with the 165 acre bloc upon which the course rests today; it had it all. The beautiful topography is highlighted by several high spots that became the first, sixth, eighth and seventeenth tees. Meandering creeks accentuate the low points of the property and helped Maxwell find and build the best sequence of holes.

As seen above, this golfer must flight the ball to the uphill ninth green from an awkward side hill stance. Good players have long appreciated how Old Town's topography separates the golfer from a range jockey who can only strike a ball well when given a level stance.

As seen above, this golfer must flight the ball to the uphill ninth green from an awkward side hill stance. Good players have long appreciated how Old Town’s topography separates the golfer from a range jockey who can only strike a ball well when given a level stance.

In Maxwell, the founders of the club had a man who provided a risk free enterprise. By that, I mean Maxwell was simply incapable of designing an indifferent course – or even hole – at this point in his career. He couldn’t possibly disappoint. The Midwesterner was not the gibbering sort but Sports Editor Nady Cates had this to say July 20th, 1939 in the Winston-Salem Journal: ‘The Old Town links, described by the designer, Perry Maxwell, as one of the seven finest in the nation, is rapidly nearing completion. Already the rolling, tricky course, with its watered fairways and greens, is taking on an appearance of rare beauty and symmetry in a setting unrivalled in this section for its grandeur. At almost any spot on the 18-hole layout one commands a sweeping view of the surrounding scenery….’

What??!! How can that be, you say? While Old Town has always enjoyed a loyal following, its presentation in 2010 engendered no such lofty affection as ‘…one of the seven finest in the nation.’ Obviously, a golf course is a living, breathing thing and courses built during the Golden Age have been around for seven plus decades. Much can change, especially at well-heeled clubs with ready funds.  Many more examples exist across the country where clubs were poor – rather than good – stewards. Particular disasters occur when the routing of a Golden Age architect is altered to counteract the advances of agronomy and technology. Less serious, though still offensive, are comprised design features, sometimes done to ease maintenance. Green pads shrink, bunkers lose their character and of course, trees grow, sometimes becoming small forests and big problems.

How does all of this apply to Old Town in a northern suburb of Winston-Salem?  Happily, this private club doesn’t seek the limelight and has no need or desire to stage a big event and prove something. Its members are more than content to enjoy the course with friends.  This attitude means that the Perry Maxwell routing from 1939 is untouched and that’s good news. How good is it? According to golf architect Bill Coore, ‘Much of Old Town’s brilliance emanates from its routing. I’ve always said that any serious student of golf course architecture must first go to Old Town to see how Mr. Maxwell laid out the course over such an extraordinary piece of property. Given the hole movement and variety, (and the fact it’s still very walkable), that’s quite an accomplishment.’ That’s lofty praise from a man who has routed such gems as Sand Hills and Bandon Trails.

Old Town’s glorious playing attributes provided by Maxwell’s routing never left but some design features faded with time to the point where one couldn’t readily discern that he was playing a Maxwell course. That was the author’s overriding feeling on a rainy autumn day during a 1986 visit. The circular, shallow bunkers bore no resemblance to nature or Maxwell’s Midwestern values.  The greens had shrunk, robbing the course of a number of its best hole locations. And of course, tree plantings obliterated the sweeping views and narrowed the scale and grandeur of a bold Maxwell design.

What to do? That was the very question facing Dunlop White, Golf Chairman. An architecture student par excellent, USGA committeeman and past president of the Donald Ross Society, White knew what needed to happen – it’s the same story at most Golden Age designs. Trees need to be removed, playing corridors reestablished, greens pushed back out to their edges and bunkers restored.

The choice of who should do the work was unusually straightforward. It would be Coore & Crenshaw! Bill Coore grew up just thirty minutes south of the course in Thomasville and attended Wake Forest. He was even on their golf team for a season, which gave him access to Old Town on a daily basis for four years. His dorm was within walking distance of the course. Maxwell played an early influence on Ben Crenshaw as well. Like Coore, Crenshaw grew up playing a Maxwell design at Austin Country Club (Riverside) in Texas. This early exposure to Maxwell surely served as part of the foundation for what eventually became Coore & Crenshaw’s shared design philosophy.

How extensive was the work carried out by Coore & Crenshaw in 2013? Maxwell’s bunkers were restored to their approximate original dimensions and shapes and that constitutes ~110,000 square feet of sand and 9 fold increase in the linear footage of bunker edges.  Old Town’s bunkers featured 35,000 sq. ft. of sand in 2010 and today their 77 bunkers display 110,000 sq. ft. (their size has more than tripled!). Over 25,000 sq. ft. of putting surface was recaptured. Fairways grew from 35 to a whopping 60 acres and now closely match the scale present in a 1939 aerial. Trees that inhibited an appreciation for the property gave way to open native areas that compliment and add texture to the site’s one-off topography. Along the way, 25 acres of bland Bermuda rough was mercifully removed.  Tees were re-aligned to the wide fairways and cart paths removed or rerouted. The list goes on and on so much so that Old Town joins Pinehurst No.2 as Coore & Crenshaw’s most inspired restoration project to date. Rarely does a course experience such a remarkable improvement.

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Gorgeous, sweeping long views are now afforded throughout the course’s interior. Above is the red outbound flag at the seventh with the massive bunker and yellow flag at the inward twelfth several hundred yards away.

Apart from the thinning of trees, most of the work was completed in a 10 month window. Dave Axland and Keith Rhebb did a fantastic job with the bunkers.  Coore concentrated on the greens, and Quinn Thompson closed the deal with his detail work and nativeplantings.  Accolades have greeted the restoration, pleasing no one more than Dunlop White whose research and behind the scenes club work paved the way for this exemplary outcome.

There was never any question that Coore would accept the project; he has long hailed Maxwell as one of his very favorites and acknowledged how influential Old Town was for his career. He has noted on many occasions,  “Old Town and Pinehurst No. 2 served as the cornerstones for my early understanding of what extraordinary golf course architecture was all about.” Notoriously finicky about projects that hold interest, this would be a labor of love for Coore and it shows in the completed work as demonstrated below.

Holes to Note

(Please note: Two yardages are given, one from 7030 yards that the golf team at Wake Forest uses and another from 6280 which makes for a very charming course. Par is a tight 70.)

First hole, 425/395 yards; An opening hole should set the stage for what the golfer can expect the rest of the day and Old Town’s does that to the nth degree. A wide, tumbling fairway greets the golfer with flatter sections available to the better golfer seeking an advantage. Regardless, the golfer is likely to have to make fiddly little adjustments to accommodate the uneven stances dished up by the sloping fairway. Atop a rise, a superlative green awaits and like many greens here, one that even good players can putt off.

An inordinate amount of time was spent by Coore & Crenshaw perfecting the short right bunker. Given that it serves as the introduction to the course, Coore was insistent that its scale and presence command attention. Also worth noting is the appropriately colored sand which originates in the not too distant Yadkin River. Ultra-white sand would not have suited the property.

An inordinate amount of time was spent by Coore & Crenshaw perfecting the short right bunker. As it serves as the introduction to the course, Coore was insistent that its scale and presence command attention. Also worth noting is the appropriately colored sand which originates in the not too distant Yadkin River. Ultra-white sand would not have suited the property.

Second hole, 165/145 yards; Maxwell’s first course Dornick Hills and masterpiece, Prairie Dunes also feature one shot second holes. Throwing in a one shotter early was clearly something he enjoyed. As at Hutchison, Kansas, this one features a green that is wider than deep and places a premium on keeping the ball below the hole.

Yikes - here is a 2010 photograph of the second hole which bears little resemblance to a Maxwell hole.

Yikes – here is a 2010 photograph of the second hole which bears little resemblance to a Maxwell creation.

...of the same hole. note how much better the bunkers are integrated with the green!

Here is the 2014 version. Note how much better the bunkers are integrated with the green. Throughout the course, Coore & Crenshaw recovered two to three feet of bunker depth, providing the necessary three dimensional qualities that all great bunkers possess.

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Look at the day’s tricky back right hole location just over the rise. Less difficult is the walk to the next tee as it’s just behind/on top of the back bunkers.

Third hole, 430/370 yards; This early hole returns the golfer to the clubhouse, something Maxwell had seen done at Pine Valley. In fact, plenty of members get their golf fix by playing only this three hole loop. Between Maxwell and Coore, the features that lend this hole its playing qualities are where they belong: down the middle! A well crafted high right bunker interacts perfectly with a new one cut into a central mound 130 yards short of the green. Slotting one’s tee ball between these two is just the start as the green features what the members refer to as a ‘muffin’ near the middle of the putting surface. Such a Maxwell creation – a gentle rise or puff in a putting surface – provides many interesting hole locations, all in the most uncontrived manner possible. Pity more architects don’t follow Maxwell’s lead.

Some of Coore & Crenshaw's most interesting - and varied - bunkers are found at Old Town. Note the attractive hard edges.

Some of Coore & Crenshaw’s most interesting – and varied – bunkers are found at Old Town. Note the attractive hard edges.

With width restored, Coore had the option to install central bunkers where needed. This one on the third has caused Webb Simpson to revise how he plays the hole from the tee.

With width restored, Coore had the option to install central bunkers where needed. This one cut into a mound at the third has caused Webb Simpson to revise how he plays the hole from the tee.

Fourth hole, 525/515 yards; This is one of the best holes on the course to get off a good drive. Once over the brow of the hill, a well struck tee ball bounds happily along and makes the hole reachable – and it’s a thrilling shot because the approach is even more downhill than it is at Augusta National’s fifteenth. Similarly, both greens are pushed up from their surrounds but there’s a greater range of trouble here in the form of a jungle right and long, a creek 40 yards shy of the green and  gnarly hay left. Most golfers have learned to bump it down the hill and be content with a level stance for a 100 yard pitch.

The easiest hole on the course has plenty of defenses for those who employ rash tactics.

The easiest hole on the course has plenty of defenses for those who employ aggressive tactics. Nonetheless, the back to front tilt of the green can accommodate a long iron approach.

Fifth hole, 410/365 yards; Maxwell still enjoys a very devoted following to this day. It helps that three of his very best works, Prairie Dunes, Southern Hills and Crystal Downs are all very well presented. A true fan will step onto the fifth tee and immediately recall the fifth at Crystal Downs. Both holes are sharp doglegs left with deep bunkers cut into landforms on the inside of the dogleg. The hole at Crystal Downs is a bit shorter and as such, provides a greater range of outcomes but both are impressive drive and short iron holes.

The three staggered bunkers beautifully draw the golfer's eye down the memorable fifth.

The three staggered bunkers beautifully draw the golfer’s eye down the memorable fifth.

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Just carrying these bunkers on the inside of the dogleg is important as this sneak peek under the specimen oaks shows an eight foot deep greenside bunker that complicates approaches played from the right.

By 2000, the fifth green had morphed from subtle rolls to distinct tiers, a most un-Maxwell feature. Dave Axland worked and worked - and worked - to  restore Maxwell's puffs on the putting surface with great success, as seen above in this view from the right side.

By 2000, the fifth green had morphed from subtle rolls to distinct tiers, a most un-Maxwell feature. Dave Axland worked and worked – and worked – to restore Maxwell’s puffs on the putting surface with great success, as seen above in this view from the right side.

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