The Carnegie Club at Skibo Castle
Sutherland, Scotland

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

The low profile architecture at Skibo Golf Course compliments the course’s glorious setting.

Some golf snobs do not even consider playing a new course when they venture to the British Isles. Their sentiments are reasonable in that there are so many fine courses, why waste time with a bungled new one? Ballybunion (Cashen), the Belfry, and Mount Juliet are hardly the stuff of dreams. In the case of The Carnegie Club at Skibo Castle, though, these purists who flock to play Royal Dornoch do themselves a disservice.

The property at Skibo Golf Course is staggeringly diverse. The golfer plays besides and over at different times lichen heath, a Loch, the Dornoch Firth, a salt marsh and a tidal bay. The walk up the 18th fairway late one crisp December afternoon was very rewarding, with the smell of peat in the air and views across the tidal bay toward Skibo Castle with its fireplaces roaring. The migrating birds had arrived from the Arctic and Iceland. Routing the golf course was quite a challenge as Donald Steel’s design firm wanted to take full advantage of the property’s unique features, many of which fell around the perimeter of the rectangular property. For instance, the sub-400 yard seventh and eighth holes add much to the charm of a game at Skibo Golf Course but they are separated from the rest of the course by a several hundred yard wide lichen heath.

Tom Mackenzie, a native of Dornoch, who worked with Donald Steel on this course and is now partners with Martin Ebert in the design firm, Mackenzie & Ebert, that they founded in 2005 when Donald Steel was nominated for the Presidency of the English Union explains what was involved in building these holes: In regards to the seventh and eighth holes, many people have mentioned that these two holes across the road are a little on the quirky side. We felt that the whole experience of going across and up to the greenside for the present seventh green then right down onto the shore side on the eighth added so much to the whole experience that it was worth the road crossing. This area is part of an environmentally protected area (protected now at European level) called a Site of Special Scientific Interest and the presumption is always against development unless it can be proven that the conservation of the site benefits from that development. The holes were almost entirely built on areas of gorse and broom that had been burnt some years before and, as a result, had been ruined as far as the ecology of this area of the site was concerned. We simply had to work within these areas to gain permission. We also agreed a management plan with the conservation authorities that allowed them to dictate how the valued habitats should be managed .

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

Placing the eighth green hard by the Dornoch Firth was too good an opportunity for the architects to pass up. From here, the golfer walks through a…

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

… a protected lichen heath and up onto the ninth tee from where this photograph was taken.

Apart from tampering with the natural setting as little as possible, Donald Steel and his design team deserve credit in particular for creating a strategic course. Not long at less than 6,800 yards from the back, almost every hole has a proper position to place the tee shot. If accomplished, the golfer is rewarded with a more straightforward approach down the full length of the green. Seemingly innocuous greens like the first, shrug balls off if the green is not approached from the proper angle. Donald Steel appreciated that it is through the greens that an architect can challenge the better player without resorting to overly severe features from tee to green (e.g., the Old Course at St. Andrews).

As is the case with all of the great links courses, the Carnegie Club was not ‘perfect’ the day it saw its first round. For example, there was concern that the middle stretch of holes lacked the inspiration found in the surrounding holes. Mackenzie has addressed this criticism in recent years. First, the sequence of the holes was changed, so that the previously criticized stretch now falls as holes three-five (rather than 9-11). When encountered earlier in the round, the holes are less likely to offend, just as one hears few complaints about the humdrum fourth and fifth holes on Ballybunion (Old). Mackenzie notes, ‘The re-numbering of the holes was something that the new owners were really keen on and it made sense. Many comments on the original layout made reference to the middle run of holes from the old ninth to the 12th being rather flat and unmemorable and the re-numbering (and subsequent redesigns) aimed to break up that sequence. None were poor holes but as a group they did not match the drama of the start and finish. On balance, I feel that it has worked out well.’ The three-shot third and fifth holes have seven bunkers each, positioned in such a way that these straightaway holes need to be played almost as double dog-legs. Both holes also feature two of the more challenging greens on the course. When taken with the three-shot 14th, they form a fine example of designing three-shot holes over relatively flat terrain. Importantly, the bunkering schemes allow them to play well in any wind direction.

This eye toward improvement continues and Mackenzie clearly enjoys the club’s on-going evolution. As he explains: A few bunkers were added during the first few years as the course became established. The main challenge was taming the formidable rough which was mostly the existing grassland vegetation. We had to agree to retain it as part of the original permitting procedures. When the current owners bought Skibo Golf Course, Donald Steel and I were kindly asked to come to review the course as they had ambitious development plans for the whole estate and were ready to invest heavily in the course. Having had the chance to play the course many times since opening, I knew the areas of weakness of the original layout (many of which were the result of the original permitting bargaining) and it was great to have a chance to carry out that review. Since then, we have been able to move the 12th over alongside Loch Evelix (impossible during original negotiations) and to build a new par three 13th hole. The old hole had been really hard as it was about 200 yards into the wind and was simply too much of a slog. The new 12th is a par 4 replacing the old par 5 hole, so the 14th was extended and rebunkered to become a strong par 5 into the wind .

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

The vastly improved twelfth now hugs the Loch. The mound at the front-right of the green rewards the player who flirts with the more dangerous right side of the fairway off the tee.

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

Initially, trees on the inside of the dogleg reduced some of the playing angles off the tee. Such is no longer the case.

Mackenzie continues: In 2007, we have revamped the second, opening out the right of the fairway from the tee (adding three deep bunkers) and lowering the ridge short of the green so that the putting surface is in view from the fairway. The tees have been moved to the other side of the first green so that the dogleg is less severe and to tempt the longest players to try to go for the carry over the new bunkers. This was to add options to a hole which had been too one-dimensional first time around. The old ninth green (the new fifth) was screened from the second tee and fairway. Skibo Golf Course has worked closely with Scottish Natural Heritage (the government conservation body) since the course opened and we were able to reach agreement to widen and reshape the seventh fairway this winter, even though these areas were within the SSSI. It makes the hole more forgiving for the less able players and makes the green more of a tempting target for the long hitter under benign conditions. It adds to the strategic richness of the course and improves a hole where many were forced to lay up every time. A couple of years ago, we also added a new back tee on the 8th. In the autumn of 2007, we are planning to extend the 10th hole by building a new green some 50 yards further back. This area of the site was completely flat before the original course was built and everyone was concerned about taking the green too close to the road. The hills did their job and this is not such a concern now. It creates a long par four, albeit often downwind. The weaker holes on the course have been markedly improved since the course opened in 1991.

However, what makes the course such a treat to play are some of its one-of-a-kind holes that we see below.   

Holes to Note

Sixth hole, 155 yards; A great find by the architect, this one shotter plays from the top of one dune across to another. All Donald Steel needed to do was level the tee and green, which is long and slopes away on all sides. The more one plays it, the harder the hole seems to grow, as the golfer realizes that to miss the green can be the start of a high score. Tom Mackenzie was always a big fan of the sixth as it ‘was a wonderful bit of terrain that was crying out for a short hole. It is really satisfying identifying good greensites, doing just enough to create a green, and then building the tee and the hole is finished. It is design in its purest form.’

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

The great one shot sixth now plays from one totally exposed dune top to another whereas as recently as 2008…

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

…bushes ringed the green.

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

Though it may not look so from the tee, the sixth green is plenty large and offers a reasonable target.

Seventh hole, 310 yards; A fascinating short hole with no clear way to play it. The optimal line is down the right but that’s where a drop-off with bracken and all kinds of trouble waits. Perhaps this line is prudent only in still conditions? The fairway on the left doubles with the eighth hole and seems inviting enough; however, it has a hogback and plays smaller. Furthermore, the conservative tee shot left leaves the harder approach over the front left pot bunker and hollow to a green that is then quite shallow. In theory, the golfer ought to figure someway to attack this hole that measures slightly over 300 yards. However, Greg Norman’s quick seven here during Shell’s Wonderful World of Golf match serves as a cautionary tale as to what can happen with imprudent playing tactics.

Skibo golf course, Donald Steel, Tom Mackenzie, Mackenzie & Ebert

A new seventh was built in 2008 with the golfer needing to decide just how much he wants to challenge the dangers down the right.

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