Mid Ocean Club
Tucker Town, Bermuda

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

Macdonald’s bold architecture proved the perfect compliment to the rugged cliffs and rolling topography of Tuckers Town on the island of Bermuda.

Completed in 1921 by Charles Blair Macdonald‘s Mid Ocean Golf Club set a standard for small island golf that many feel has yet to be matched. Some modern courses like Pete Dye’s Casa de Campo in the Dominican Republic or Greg Norman/Bob Harrison’s design of Nirwana Bali in Indonesia enjoy more holes with spectacular ocean frontage, yet the cumulative sequence of holes at Mid Ocean Golf Club, and the variety of challenge that they possess, still make it the island course by which all are judged.

The opportunity to develop a course here was presented to Macdonald by the Furness Withy Steamship Company who hoped to develop Bermuda as a tourist destination. Some of Macdonald‘s Long Island friends considered Cuba to be the better place to spend the long cold New York winters but Macdonald, as he writes in Scotland’s Gift in 1928, ‘…felt confident Bermuda was the place.’

After scouring the island, Macdonald finally settled on an area known as Tuckers Town. Though the process of acquiring the land was more laborious and expensive than hoped, they eventually secured 600 acres. The southern part of the property ran for approximately 1,500 yards along the cliffs by the azure Atlantic Ocean and was bordered to the northwest by Harrington Sound and to the northeast by Castle Harbour. Two natural lakes were found within the acres, one being Mangrove Lake and the other Trott’s Pond.

Playing golf in such an environment is always a happy occurrence!

Macdonald‘s first task was to route the course in such a manner that the visiting golfer was glad he made the trip to this island destination. In the day, the journey was by boat as opposed to plane and thus, being more time consuming, it was particularly important that the course get off to a quick start. Of the first four holes, two of the green sites (e.g. the first and third) are hard by the cliffs as are two of the tees (e.g. the second and fourth). The famous fifth drops the golfer from high above Mangrove Lake to along its shore while the sixth takes maximum advantage of the site’s rolling topography. From here until the uphill sixteenth, the game is played mostly through valleys. This is for good reason as we see when Charles Blair Macdonald wrote in Scotland’s Gift, ‘It was only within the valleys that there was any soil. In these valleys the principal products were onions, potatoes, and Easter lilies. Below the six inches of soil was coral rock. We pursued the same course making contour and relief maps as we had in building other courses.’

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

Macdonald elected to route many of the holes through valleys as that was where the only soil was found. The eleventh fairway as seen above is one such example. Otherwise, as seen behind the… …thirteenth tee, coral rock was frequently just under the surface. Be it at Lido or Yale or here, Macdonald’s construction supervisor Seth Raynor was a master at building courses that looked natural despite difficult circumstances.

Macdonald was enamored with the topography of the inland holes. Again, he writes, ‘The contours of the property are unsurpassed, delightful valleys, one to two hundred yards in width, winding through coral hills from twenty to seventy-five feet in height, along the line of play; well wooded with cedars, oleanders, bougainvilleas and hibiscus, lending the most fascinating color scheme to the whole.’ After the one shot seventh, the eighth and ninth play through their own valleys, as do the eleventh and twelfth. A nearly two hundred yard wide valley is found at the fourteenth and fifteenth where Macdonald routed the two holes parallel to one another. From here, Macdonald took the golfer up and over the side of the valley at the sixteenth before the rousing cliff side finish.

With the routing complete, the chore of building the course began. Fortunately, Macdonald brought his ‘A’ team to the project, meaning Seth Raynor, Charles Banks, and Ralph Barton. These men were the most able to translate Macdonald‘s design ideas into reality.

Completed on December 15th, 1921, the course possessed a great number of Macdonald’s prototypical favorite strategic holes as seen below.

Holes to Note

First hole, 420 yards, Atlantic; Featuring twenty-two bunkers (!), the first is easily the most heavily bunkered hole on the course. However, what gives the hole its teeth is that the green is both the highest and most exposed point on the course. All kinds of things can happen here, as Angel Cabrera can attest having carded an ‘eight’ here during the 2007 PGA Grand Slam. When the conversation turns to the world’s best opening hole, this one stands in equal company to the first at Pine Valley, Hoylake, and Machrihanish. In common with those holes, it makes for a superb nineteenth or play-off hole.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

The first doglegs to the left and plays from hilltop to hilltop. A good line off the tee is over the center of the three bunkers seen above right.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

As the high point of its surrounds, the putting surface does nothing to help or gather balls toward it; indeed just the opposite.

Second hole, 470 yards, Long; Within the family of Macdonald‘s favorite holes, the weakest adaptation for some strange reason is his version of the Long hole. There is no clear reason why he consistently failed in building three shotters that were even remotely as compelling as the fourteenth at St. Andrews. After all, his Redan and Leven at National Golf Links of America are considered superior to their originals. Again here at Mid Ocean, the Long hole lacks the equivalent of a Hell Bunker to lend the second shot its interest. Thanks to an intelligent tree clearing program in the past six years, the hole does offer optional routes off the tee with the chance to skirt past the inside bunker on this dogleg left being particularly alluring. For the second time in as many holes, the golfer faces an approach to an elevated green. On the front nine, elevated greens at the first, second, fourth, sixth, eighth, and ninth holes make the front play significantly longer than its modest length of 3,125 yards suggests.

Third hole, 190 yards, Eden; The quintessential Eden features are all present: the Hill bunker left and Strath bunker right guard this sharply sloped back to front green. In addition, the green is much wider than it is deep, so even on the rare calm day, it represents a shallow target. Importantly, though, calm days are the exception rather than the rule. Having learned the game in Scotland, Macdonald considered wind as being absolutely crucial to good golf and Mid Ocean possesses that hidden element in spades. In studying his work, the joy comes in seeing how he adopted his favorite holes/design strategies to each of the different sites with which he had to work. Here, he placed his Eden cliff side with the prevailing wind blowing left to right and into the golfer. The close proximity to the cliffs makes left hole locations among the scariest on the course. Indeed, during the PGA Grand Slam, the four professionals were content to hit for the middle right of this green as opposed toward the day’s left hole location. It is worth noting that Macdonald played golf with Davey Strath (for whom the bunker at the Eden at St. Andrews is named) while attending St. Andrews University in 1872 and 1873.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

Today’s right hole location (the blue flag is seen against the bushes) is easier than when the hole is left with only the ocean as the backdrop to the fluttering flag.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

This view from the fourth tee looking back down the Eden shows the peril that awaits a tee ball that drifts left. The white house in the background served as the clubhouse for the first few years, meaning that until the first clubhouse proper was built, play commenced here on this par three.

Fourth hole, 330 yards, Mangrove; When routing the course, Macdonald, one imagines, must have taken great delight in finding a cliff setting for his beloved Eden hole. Furthermore, one assumes that Charles Blair Macdonald early in the routing process discovered the commanding tee position high above Mangrove Lake for what is today’s fifth hole. Thus, the question became how to get from one hole to the other. Indeed, the merit of such a connector hole (i.e. a hole that connects one great hole to another) has a great say in how well a course well be perceived over time. Just a few mediocre holes and the overall merit of any course is tarnished. In this case, Macdonald came up with a beauty of a short par four. A thorough original, this hole has two qualities that have proven particularly irksome. The first is that drives that finish from 120 to 90 yards (i.e. just where the golfer hopes to drive it) from the green leave a blind approach, given the abrupt slope of the hill upon which the green sits. Only from spots either further back or closer is the flag visible. The second playing characteristic that torments golfers is the green’s wicked back to front slope, featuring nearly a five foot drop. The uniqueness of this short two shotter, and its stubbornness to yield birdies, has earned it many admirers over the decades.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

The fourth green slopes sharply from back to front.

Fifth hole, 435 yards; Cape; Despite being one of the most photographed, written about, and copied holes in world golf, the sensation of standing on the tee and preparing to hit never fails to thrill. From ninety feet above Mangrove Lake, the golfer debates how much to cut off with his tee ball given the day’s playing conditions (the prevailing wind is behind the golfer, quartering from left to right). Because the view from the tee is so mesmerizing, the strategic merit of the hole is often overlooked. Not unlike the thirteenth at Augusta National, the closer one’s tee ball finishes to the hazard, the more level the stance and the better the angle one has into the green. In the case of Mid Ocean, Macdonald‘s stunning green complex accepts approach shots played from the left center of the fairway. The further one steers away from Mangrove Lake off the tee, the worse one’s approach angle into the green, thanks to both the fairway’s and green’s pronounced right to left tilt. Entirely manufactured, the green complex is the boldest on the course. Macdonald‘s twenty courses that he designed, which is quite a small number relative to the body of work of many successful modern architects, yielded an amazingly high percentage of world class holes. Yet, who could fault anyone for selecting the fifth as perhaps Macdonald‘s best? In many ways, it captures his colossal personality as well as his design talent/flair for producing holes of lasting strategic merit that were fun to play. George Bahto, leading Macdonald historian and author of The Evangelist of Golf, notes, ‘ His use of important design characteristics of the great holes from Europe melded into his innate ability to recreate them in a bold manner that set him apart from his protégés. Many of his favorite theme holes at National Golf Links of America were never surpassed including the Short, Redan and Alps. However, there is one important exception that comes to mind and that is the Cape hole at Mid Ocean; truly an enigmatic and brilliant golf hole not forced into the local terrain.’

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

‘Macdonald placed the two hundred yard long fifth fairway on the other side of Mangrove Lake from the tee. Set on a diagonal, the unendingly fascinating question posed is ‘ how much do I dare carry?'”

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

The right to left tilt of the fairway is more pronounced the farther one is from the lake. Thus, one of the hole’s risk/reward dilemmas is to hug the lake off the tee for the sake of a better stance and angle into the green.

Sixth hole, 360 yards, Brow; Charles Blair Macdonald studied at St. Andrews and his love of The Old Course is evident in the number of holes whose design merits he replicated, including the Eden, Road, and Long (all three are found there at Mid Ocean Golf Club). Macdonald appreciated the land contours of The Old Course and how they were employed within the holes to frustrate/infuriate golfers. He learned his lesson well and that is seen here at the sixth. Relative to the landforms at St. Andrews, the ones here are more pronounced as the landing area and green are both on brows of hills, hence the hole’s name. The typical Mid Ocean golfer is more than happy to hit his approach shot from the thirty-five yard wide brow of the first hill as it leaves him but a short iron into the green. The tiger golfer with today’s equipment may elect to chase his tee ball over the first hill and leave him but a sixty yard flick to the uphill green. However, Charles Blair Macdonald‘s study of The Old Course pays off again as the first third of the green slopes away from the golfer. A primary reason for The Old Course remaining the complete challenge that it is decade after decade is to be found in the number of its greens that (partially at least) slope away from the player. Here is another example.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

Finding the crest of the hill should suffice – or does the golfer want to gain a turbo kick by carrying his tee ball beyond it? The ugly scar cart path was not present in Macdonald’s day.

Seventh hole, 165 yards, Short; Thirty-five yards have been added to this hole since Macdonald‘s day but as it plays sharply downhill, it frequently plays to the same club as in the days of hickory, which is to say between a mashie-niblick and niblick (or seven to nine iron). In recent years, the fronting water hazards have been expanded to wrap around the front right and in particular front left and side of the green. Macdonald didn’t frequently employ water near his greens as it is a non-recoverable (and therefore boring unless used sparingly) hazard. The elevated tees and water hazards when coupled with the swirling winds that come up this valley create uncertainty in the golfer’s mind. When in doubt, and regardless of the day’s hole location, the wise play is to the back right center of the green.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

The Short green is an ample enough target but the penalty for misses short or left are severe.

Eighth hole, 350 yards, Valley; In the days of hickory clubs, no one thought about driving either the fourth or eighth greens. Ironically, the onslaught of technology may have made both these holes even better than they were in Macdonald‘s day as now the tiger golfer has the option in favorable wind conditions to have a go. Similar to the fourth, this green is well defended but unlike the one at the fourth perched a top a hill, this green complex is entirely manufactured. Given the paucity of dirt available, one assumes that Raynor and Banks dredged up the dirt from the lake at the nearby ninth when they created this built up green for Macdonald.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

Typical for Macdonald and of good architecture in general, the shorter the hole, the more well fortified the green complex. No reason to flirt with going straight at the left hole location as seen above; let the green contours from the right funnel the approach shot close.

Mid Ocean Golf Club, Golf in Bermuda, Charles Blair Macdonald, Tom Doak

This view from the ninth toward the back of the eighth green highlights how much dirt was required by Raynor and Banks to create the fill pad that is now the eighth green complex.

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